Purulia Municipality


History of Purulia

The district Purulia has attained its present status after undergoing massive changes in the territory over decades from what was known earlier as Vajra Bhumi.
From archaeological surveys and the relics and the inscriptions (Jaina Bhagavati-Sutra), which have been deciphered till date, Purulia is known to be existing even in the circa 5th century A.D. as a significant part of the territory of 16 Mahajanapadas.
The ancient history of Purulia was depicted with the name Vajra-Bhumi. Vajra-Bhumi (present Purulia), in the medieval times includes the whole part of present state of Jharkhand.
Vajra -Bhumi has passed through several hands, has underwent massive change and the whole district has continued to exist as fragmented sections controlled by several kings.
Finally the entire territory of Bengal came under the Muslim sway in 1365, when the Afghan Chief Bakhtiyar Khalji ousted the last Sena King Lakshman Sena from Bengal. Bengal reached its culmination in the Sultanate régime, who consolidated the disintegrated portions of Bengal and established a separate territory. Following the ancient chronicle accounts of Purulia it was under these Subha or the Sultans, the broken fragments of Purulia and other parts of Bengal were united.
In the year 1765, demolishing the last sovereign king of Bengal Siraj-ud-daulah in the battle of Plassey, the British take over the sovereignty of Bengal.
The recorded history of Purulia begins with the suzerainty of the British in the entire tract of Bengal.
The British finally attained the grant of Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa. In 1805, by Regulation of XVIIII, the British formed a new district called "Jungle Mahals", incorporating 23 Parganas and Mahals, including the present Purulia.
In 1833 jungle Mahals was again disintegrated and a new district "Manbhum" was constituted with its headquarter at Manbazar.
Manbhum was a vast district including the areas of Bardhaman & Bankura of present West Bengal and Dhanbad, Dhalaibhum, Saraikela and Kharswan of present Jharkhand.
As the history of Purulia depicts, in 1838, the district headquarter was shifted to present Purulia for administrative convenience. Since Purulia was been recognized as the district headquarter of Jungle Mahals, it was withdrawn from the direct administration and placed under the intervention of the delegates of the British Raj. An officer called Principal assistant to the agent of the Governor General to the South West Frontier ruled Purulia.
The abrupt alteration and the rapid changes continue to illustrate the history of Purulia even after independence and partition of Bengal.
Finally with the act of Transfer of Territories in 1956, the district of Manbhum was separated between Bihar and West Bengal and the present district of Purulia was born out of that separated tract of Manbhum on 1st November 1956.
Purulia is the westernmost district of West Bengal with all-India significance because of its tropical location, its shape as well as function like a funnel. It funnels not only the tropical monsoon current from the Bay to the subtropical parts of north-west India, but also acts as a gateway between the developed industrial belts of West Bengal and the hinterlands in Orissa, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
Purulia town is the headquarters of the district Purulia.
Purulia is one of the most important towns in the western arid zone of West Bengal.The municipality was established in the year 1876. It is a medium town surrounded by villages and agricultural land.The social and economic structure shows a rural-urban mixed trend.It is located at a distance of 230 km from State capital-Kolkata.The total area of municipality is 8.0 sq.km having * mouzas (*) and 23* wards with 3606* household,hosuse and has an official population of 1,13,799(2001).
The municipal area covers 8.0 Sq.Km. gently sloping towards the Kasi River flowing southwards.The average elevation of the town is 228 m.a.s.l
There is no major industry in the town.There is one municipal market with about 294 shops.Total number od shops in the town is 2,200.
As house hold survey conducted in, July,2009,it was seen that about 57% of the total population are under working class.Significant percentage(about 41%) are involved in agricultural work.

a).Geographical Location

The district Purulia lies between 22.60º and 23.50º north latitudes and 85.75º and 86.65º east longitudes. The geographical area of the district is 6259 km². The district is bordered on the east by Bankura, Paschim Medinipur districts, on the north by Bardhaman district of West Bengal state and Dhanbad district of Jharkhand state, on the west by Bokaro and Ranchi districts of Jharkhand state and on the south by West Singhbhum and East Singhbhum districts of Jharkhand state
The town Purulia is located at about 23.28º north latitude and 86.24º longitude
The town is well connected with the rest of West Bengal and adjoining Jharkhand State.NH-32 passes through the central part of the town and is linked with Ranchi,the capital of Jharkhand.A major state highway passes through the town connecting N.H. and Coal mines belt at Asansol area of adjoing District Burswan.It is well connected with Railways also.The town Puruia is the first municipal town situated in the *North-Eastern part of the district Purulia. Purulia is situated 60 k.m from sub-divisional head-quarter,Asansol and well linked with the state highway Barakar-Purulia Road and with National Highway through Barakar-Asansol road.This town is well connected with another Sub-divisional town Jhalda and the Raghunathpur.The industrial town Asansol and Durgapur is very close to the town.The town Puruia is situated at about 263 k.m from state capital,Kolkata.
b).Year of Establishment :
The Year of Establishment is ,1876 supported by no of villages and agricultural land.
The total area of this town is 12.630 Sq.Km with 22 wards and 7 mouzas,34 slum pockets and 800 holdings.

The district has a population of 2,538,233 (as per the 2001 census) out of which 19.35% is Scheduled Caste and 19.22% is Scheduled Tribes. The literacy rates of male and female are 74.18% and 37.15% of the total population respectively. According to the 2001 census, 83.42% of the populations are Hindus, while 7.12% are Muslims The populations of the town as per 1991 and 2001 census are 92,386 and 113,766 respectively. As per the census report 2001,the population of Puruia is 1,13,799(2001) The population and the decadal growth are shown in the table

Population as per Census Report

Decadal Growth

e).Climate and Rainfall:
South west monsoon is the principal source of rainfall in the district. Average annual rainfall varies between 1100 and 1500 mm. The relative humidity is high in monsoon season, being 75% to 85%. But in hot summer it comes down to 25% to 35%.
Here the Climate is extreme in nature.During winter minimum temperapture falls up to 6-7 degree centigrade and in summer the max.temp.sometimes rises to 400 C. Temperature varies from 7 degrees celsius in winter to 45 degrres Celsius in summer.
Clay soil,morrum and latarite soil are found in this area.
g).Water Supply:
Initially the people used to drink the pond water from ‘Saheb Band’ through the collection and supplied by PHE.But at present they are not getting water from the said Saheb Bandh due insufficient availability in .There is 1500 house connections out of 3606 holdings and 130 standpost.Average supply 28 lpcd in part of town.
h).Administrative Set up:
Purulia is the distruct head quarter.The town Puruia emerged out as a municipal town in the year 1876.
The main rivers passing through or bordering the district are Kangsabati, Kumari, Dwarakeswar, Subarnarekha and Damodar. The river Kangsabati or Kansai flows along the southern boundary of the town.
Due to undulated topography nearly 50% of the rainfall flows away as runoff. The district is covered by mostly residual soil formed by weathering of bed rocks.


Town has three nos of boys school including 2 nos higher secondary school, 2 nos girls school,29 nos primary school,one no co-ed college


Hand loom industries take very important part in his town.There are good no.of weavers who are emerged in such industries.Silk/ Tasar product of Puruia has earned acclaim at national level.There are several weavers co-operatives also located within the town.
The town is about 323 km away from the state capital Kolkata and is connected with important cities by both rail and road network. The south-eastern railway line crosses the town near its southern boundary from the north-east towards the south. NH 32 and NH60A pass through the heart of the town connecting Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand and Jamshedpur. Barakar Road, a state highway, starts from the NH32 at the centre of the town and connects Barakar, Bankura and Durgapur towns of West Bengal.
The town is about 323 km away from the state capital Kolkata and is connected with important cities by both rail and road network. The south-eastern railway line crosses the town near its southern boundary from the north-east towards the south. NH 32 and NH60A pass through the heart of the town connecting Ranchi, the capital of Jharkhand and Jamshedpur. Barakar Road, a state highway, starts from the NH32 at the centre of the town and connects Barakar, Bankura and Durgapur towns of West Bengal.
This enjoys good communication with nearest railway stn at Puruia,the bus service at every half an hour to connect every corner of the district and its adjoining areas.The Kolkata,the capital of this state is 230 km away and direct bus servise is available from here.

c).Economic Activities
The town is a good service centre for agriculture products.A considerable endeavor is being made for improvement in primary sector like cottage industries,handloom,finishing and poutries.


a).Health Facility:
There is one Sub-Divisional Hospital in this town though the district hospital is nearer to this town with quite accessible with indoor,outdoor and bed facilities.
Educational facilities is not so remarkable in this town.
c).Post & Telegraph:
There is a Sub-Divisional post office at Puruia Municipality as well as a Telephone Exchange.
d).Banking facilities:
It is available to meet the present needs.
According to requirement the park and playground and cinema hall are more or less available here.
The culture in Purulia concentrates on the traditional folk dance "Chhou". The uniqueness of this rare mask dance of eastern India lies in the fact that it is the dramatic representation of everyday life of the common people on stage.
Chau dance of Purulia There are several categories of this Chau culture. However the antiquity of Purulia`s local culture traced back to 12-14th century A.D. when the small pockets of present Purulia was inhabited by the hostile tribes. Some Hindu chieftains, so far the historical records are concerned established their sovereignty in the region. With the passing of days their culture was synchronized with the local culture of the tribals and that coordinated culture have become modified into the present day "Chhou dance". Apart from the Chhou culture different layers of influence, which have been accumulated for ages, is discernible in the folk culture and the human behavior and the nature and style of living. Presently the Chhou dance of Purulia has attained an international publicity. The Chhou dance is an inseparable part of the rituals and the festivals occasioned in Purulia.
The Chhou dance, always followed by the ritual in the nearby Shiva temple is significant enough. The folk culture of Purulia is invested with ritualistic significance of the land.

g).Tourism in Purulia
Purulia is an ideal place for tourists. The undulating topography, calm serenity and nature with its prolific abundance, silence of dense forests, twittering of birds and wild life, beautiful flora and fauna, picturesque hills and hillocks, falls, rivers, rivulets and streams make this place attractive to the visitors. Thousands of tourists come to visit Purulia every year to witness the charm of the natural forests of Ayodhya, Matha and Kuilapal, falls and tribal habitations of Ajodhya Hills and Bagmundih, dams like Panchet, Murguma and Futiari, heritage building like Panchakot Raj Palace, trekking range of Matha proud with Pakhi Pahar, and Joychandi Pahar, picnic spots like Duarsini, Doladanga, Jamuna, traditional folk dance and culture like Chhou Dance and Jhumur Song and so on. Purulia district is well connected by road and rail with the major cities and towns of the state as well as of the country. For its convenient location, this place has acquired an important place in the tourist map in India.

The tourism of Purulia centers round the archaeological excavations and the relics of the ancient buildings and the temples. Purulia is recorded as the oldest place in West Bengal, existed even in the 5th century A.D and used to be an important center of the 16 Mahajanapadas. Hence the tourism industry of Purulia has more to offer to the temples of Pakbirralovers of ancient culture and the historians.
temples of Pakbirra The village Banda is a famous name as a tourist spot in Purulia. The prime attraction of the village is the solitary temple build in the "rekha" style, with broken amalaka. The base moldings and the exquisite floral fabrications throughout the outer and the inner sections of the temple walls cast a spell to the tourists.
The big village Cheliama has a profitable contribution to the tourism industry of Purulia. The remnants of the contemporary civilization of 17th century have endowed the village with rich historical interest. The terracotta figurines and the exclusive carvings around the temples of Cheliama, murmurs the prosperity of the terracotta architecture in Purulia in the 17th Century. The famous temple, which attracts a mass of tourist to it, is the Radha-Govinda Temple, which is the plaque of the Bengali Culture prevalent in the contemporary era.
Deulghat, as its name suggests is the land of temples. It has the ruins of 15 temples near the Kansai River. The stucco decoration is the notable architecture made on the temple. The entrance of those temples is entangled with the branches of trees, casting an eerie. However these temples are the representations of the age, when they were built. Moreover the temples adorned with the graceful carve, attracts visitors, and hence are important in the tourism of Purulia.
The temples are usually stone-made which indicates that the sculpture on the stones was the traditional culture of the contemporary people. Although the buildings of the temples of Pakbirra have ruined and nothing but the relics is left, it still continues to be an important tourist center. According to the surviving remnants, those temples are built following the Jaina tradition, once prevalent in Purulia.
A number of iron images are found in the eroded temples of Suissa and in the adjoining regions. The ironic images mainly include the mythological gods and the goddesses in an unusual pose.
Muslim relics are found in the village called Para. However the archaeological relics and the eroded temples have a beauty of their own kind, which helps the tourism industry of Purulia to a large extent.


a).Road System:Out of different types roads according to importance, most of the roads require improvement to meet the present needs.

i.Meatal Road – 10.20 km
ii.Concrete Road – 23.90 km.
iii.WBM Moorum- 8.25 km.
iv.Kutcha – 10.50 km.

b).Drainagr System::Here is no underground drainage system. The stretch of pucca drain is 16.95 km whereas the kutcha drain is about 9.50 km.

c).Housing Facilities:People generally dwell in their own or rental houses either pucca or kutcha.Out of those 150 nos homeless were provided houses under NSDP & IYSH

d).Commercial Activities:It own business center for both agricultural and cottage industrial products and for day to days requirement. There is no major industry in the town.There is one municipal market with about 294 shops.Total number od shops in the town is 2,200.

e).Sewerage and Consevancy:There is no vital factor to construct sewerage system.The municipality maintains a proper garbage cleaning and drain cleaning arrangements.

f).Electricity Facility:The Municipality has provided street lights for the 45% roads,more than 85% of the house holds are with electricity connection.